Thu. Jul 25th, 2024

The United States views illegal immigration as a matter of controlling the hotbeds of tension that are considered the starting point for immigrants, and the criticisms it directs at Europe regarding dealing with this issue begin and end within the security dimension.

When the United States sees that European policies to combat illegal immigration are no longer effective and are promoting crime activity, it is at the same time trying to see what repercussions these policies will have within the North African countries.

Dealing with the migration movement does not come to light except in its final stages, when migrants are rescued at sea or bodies that drowned are recovered during attempts to reach European shores, but the migration threads reveal a wide network and different interests in the countries of refugee transit, or even in the countries from which they departed.

What concerns the United States is the nature of the connection between these networks and the forces that appear along migration lines, and the criticisms it directs at European policies stem mainly from the reflection of European actions on two issues:

The first are the groups that are dealt with on African soil to curb the phenomenon of migration. These groups most likely form armed factions linked directly or indirectly with those who organize the movement of migrants.

The second issue is the shift of migration from its traditional routes across the Mediterranean to follow new routes heading to the United States through the countries of Central America.

The previous two issues constitute the focal point in dealing with the “migration crisis,” far from its humanitarian aspects or even its deeper dimensions, which revolve around wars or the political faltering of countries.

American reports, ahead of the American elections in which immigration is one of the points of competition, speak of phenomena that have begun in the movement of immigrants from North Africa to Central American countries, some of which are lenient in the issue of visas for expatriates.

European policies and the Libyan model:

In combating illegal immigration, the European Union uses countries experiencing political tensions to monitor borders. It has dealt with Libya in particular, as it is a pivotal country in the movement of migrants. These European measures are funded by the European Union’s Emergency Trust Fund, where 800 million euros have been allocated, according to some reports. Reports to the Libyan Ministry of Interior and the Directorate for Combating Illegal Migration, which regulates official and unofficial detention centers often run by Libyan armed groups.

In practice, these centers have become collective camps that are not subject to Libya’s regulations. In addition to the humanitarian dimension, the difficult conditions, and the ill-treatment to which migrants are subjected, such as forced labor, torture, and extortion, they at the same time constitute a source of funding for armed groups, whether officially or through their association with networks. Human trafficking, and despite huge funding, these camps and other border control operations failed to reduce the flow of migrants to Europe, as the number of deaths in the Mediterranean rose as a result of these dangerous attempts to reach European lands.

The graph shows that the movement of migrants has continued to increase since the Covid pandemic in 2020. The European Union Emergency Trust Fund, which was established in 2015, offers development opportunities, but they are linked to redrawing migration problems in a different way, and the supposed development situation is practically subject to the de facto forces present in the countries it activates. The Fund, such as the Sahel and Lake Chad regions, the Horn of Africa, and North Africa.

The United States and a renewed migration crisis:

American interest in the issue of immigration is focused south on its border with Mexico and was the focus of President Donald Trump’s policies. Today, it appears more complex, as the number of illegal immigrants who illegally crossed the border between the United States and Mexico exceeded 1.1 million people between April 2022 and March 2023, compared to less than 1.1 million people. From 300,000 people in previous years.

The previous table shows that immigration is difficult to deal with through unilateral policies. American immigration laws have witnessed changes since 1924, when the Immigration Act was passed, which restricted the numbers and types of people who could enter the United States and remain there legally.

In the 1960s, immigration laws were reformed again, leading to waves of immigration from Asia to meet the needs of job vacancies in the United States, but all previous forms of immigration were not linked to networks related to human trafficking, and current trends seem to be shifting towards new paths, taking advantage of the prevailing chaos. In areas such as Libya, where the United States has become a new destination for these migrants, flights have been monitored transporting migrants from Benghazi to Managua in Nicaragua, and then to the United States across the southern border.

Details Number Description
Ghadames flight on May 18 367 Indian passengers The number of passengers on a flight to Nicaragua
Ghadames flight on May 23 298 Indian Number of passengers on a second flight to Nicaragua
Data from 100 Libyan municipalities until mid-2023 704,000 The number of migrants in Libya
bodies were found in a mass grave in southwestern Libya 65 Bodies of migrants discovered
since May 2023, according to the Inter-American Dialogue Center 1,145 The number of flights from multiple countries to Nicaragua
Romanian Legend Airlines plane at Paris airport last December over 300 Number of Indian passengers in a plane held

The previous table provides some of the details circulated by the American media about the transfer of migrants. The networks that deal with this issue have become cross-border, and work in collusion with some countries, which increases the complexity of the scene and makes it difficult to combat this phenomenon effectively without searching for equal and balanced international relations. Creating hotbeds of tension and crises.

In Libya, as a clear example, Barack Obama announced on March 28, 2011, that the United States would call for an international coalition to protect civilians from the security of Muammar Gaddafi’s forces. After the fall of Muammar Gaddafi, the state disintegrated into pieces, and conflict took place between tribes and militias competing for power, which in turn led to displacement. A mass of civilians whom the United States claimed to protect.

The United States is witnessing great challenges with regard to illegal immigration, as it has become a major destination for hundreds of immigrants who take unconventional routes to reach it. This crisis, which comes at a sensitive time ahead of the presidential elections, puts enormous pressure on the American government to take decisive action, which has made it… Sanctions are issued against airlines that facilitate the transportation of migrants via charter flights, in an attempt to reduce this phenomenon.

It is important to recognize that the migration crisis is a global challenge that requires international cooperation, and limiting policies that create crises in countries of the world and make illegal migration a continuing phenomenon requires comprehensive policies that address the root causes of irregular migration, such as poverty and armed conflicts, and with a strategy that makes countries exporting and receiving migrants It cooperates more closely and through institutions that are not affected by Western policies that are often responsible for creating tensions.

Written by Nidal Al-Khedary




Ongoing consultations between the Central Bank of Libya and the International Monetary Fund

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